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 SAS System

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kamar_ellel
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مُساهمةموضوع: SAS System   الإثنين مارس 09, 2009 3:05 pm

SAS (pronounced "sass", originally Statistical Analysis System) is an integrated system of software products provided by SAS Institute that enables the programmer to perform:


  • data entry, retrieval, management, and mining
  • report writing and graphics
  • statistical analysis
  • business planning, forecasting, and decision support
  • operations research and project management
  • quality improvement
  • applications development
  • data warehousing (extract, transform, load)
  • platform independent and remote computing
In addition, SAS has many business solutions that enable large scale software solutions for areas such as IT management, human resource management, financial management, business intelligence, customer relationship management and more.

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Description of SAS
SAS is driven by SAS programs that define a sequence of operations to be performed on data stored as tables. Although non-programmer graphical user interfaces to SAS exist (such as the SAS Enterprise Guide), most of the time these GUIs are just a front-end to automate or facilitate generation of SAS programs. SAS components expose their functionalities via application programming interfaces, in the form of statements and procedures.
A SAS program is composed of three major parts, the DATA step, procedure steps (effectively, everything that is not enclosed in a DATA step), and a macro language. SAS Library Engines and Remote Library Services allow access to data stored in external data structures and on remote computer platforms.
The DATA step section of a SAS program, like other database-oriented fourth-generation programming languages such as SQL or Focus, assumes a default file structure, and automates the process of identifying files to the operating system, opening the input file, reading the next record, opening the output file, writing the next record, and closing the files. This allows the user/programmer to concentrate on the details of working with the data within each record, in effect working almost entirely within an implicit program loop that runs for each record.
All other tasks are accomplished by procedures that operate on the data set (SAS' terminology for "table") as a whole. Typical tasks include printing or performing statistical analysis, and may just require the user/programmer to identify the data set. Procedures are not restricted to only one behavior and thus allow extensive customization, controlled by mini-languages defined within the procedures. SAS also has an extensive SQL procedure, allowing SQL programmers to use the system with little additional knowledge.
There are macro programming extensions, that allow for rationalization of repetitive sections of the program. Proper imperative and procedural programming constructs can be simulated by use of the "open code" macros or the SAS/IML component.
Macro code in a SAS program, if any, undergoes preprocessing. At runtime, DATA steps are compiled and procedures are interpreted and run in the sequence they appear in the SAS program. A SAS program requires the SAS software to run.
Compared to general-purpose programming languages, this structure allows the user/programmer to be less familiar with the technical details of the data and how it is stored, and relatively more familiar with the information contained in the data. This blurs the line between user and programmer, appealing to individuals who fall more into the 'business' or 'research' area and less in the 'information technology' area, since SAS does not enforce (although SAS recommends) a structured, centralized approach to data and infrastructure management.
SAS runs on IBM mainframes, Unix machines, OpenVMS Alpha, and Microsoft Windows; and code is almost transparently moved between these environments. Older versions have supported PC-DOS, the Apple Macintosh, VMS, VM/CMS, Data General AOS and OS/2.
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Early history of SAS


SAS was conceived by Anthony J. Barr in 1966.[1] As a North Carolina State University graduate student from 1962 to 1964, Barr had created an analysis of variance modeling language inspired by the notation of statistician Maurice Kendall, followed by a multiple regression program that generated machine code for performing algebraic transformations of the raw data. Drawing on those programs and his experience with structured data files,[2] he created SAS, placing statistical procedures into a formatted file framework. From 1966 to 1968, Barr developed the fundamental structure and language of SAS.
In January 1968, Barr and James Goodnight collaborated, integrating new multiple regression and analysis of variance routines developed by Goodnight into Barr's framework.[3][4] Goodnight's routines made the handling of basic statistical analysis more robust, and his later implementation (in SAS 76) of the general linear model greatly increased the analytical power of the system. By 1971, SAS was gaining popularity within the academic community. And by 1972, industry was making use of SAS. One strength of the system was analyzing experiments with missing data, which was useful to the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, among others.
In 1973, John Sall joined the project, making extensive programming contributions in econometrics, time series, and matrix algebra. Other participants in the early years included Caroll G. Perkins, Jolayne W. Service, and Jane T. Helwig. Perkins made programming contributions. Service and Helwig created the early documentation.[3]
In 1976, SAS Institute, Inc. was incorporated by Barr, Goodnight, Sall, and Helwig.
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Components


This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
SAS consists of a number of components, which organizations separately license and install as required.


SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office

A component of the SAS Enterprise Business Intelligence Server, is designed to provide access to data, analysis, reporting and analytics for non-technical workers (such as business analysts, power users, domain experts and decision makers) via menus and toolbars integrated into Office applications.


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kamar_ellel
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عدد المساهمات : 1009
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الألتزام بقوانين المنتدى :

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: SAS System   الإثنين مارس 09, 2009 3:05 pm

Base SAS

The core of SAS is the so-called Base SAS Software, which is used to manage data. SAS procedures software analyzes and reports the data. The
SQL procedure allows SQL programming in lieu of data step and procedure programming. Library Engines allow transparent access to common data structures such as Oracle, as well as pass-through of SQL to be executed by such data structures. The Macro facility is a tool for extending and customizing SAS software programs and reducing overall program verbosity. The DATA step debugger is a programming tool that helps find logic problems in DATA step programs. The Output Delivery System (ODS) is an extendable system that delivers output in a variety of formats, such as SAS data sets, listing files, RTF, PDF, XML, or HTML. The SAS windowing environment is an interactive, graphical user interface used to run and test SAS programs.


BI Dashboard

A plugin for Information Delivery Portal. It allows the user to create various graphics that represent a broad range of data. This allows a quick glance to provide a lot of information, without having to look at all the underlying data.


Data Integration Studio

Provides extract, transform, load services


SAS Enterprise Business Intelligence Server

Includes both a suite of business intelligence (BI) tools and a platform to provide uniform access to data. The goal of this product is to compete with Business Objects and Cognos' offerings.


Enterprise Computing Offer (ECO)

Not to be confused with Enterprise Guide or Enterprise Miner, ECO is a product bundle.


Enterprise Guide

SAS Enterprise Guide is a Microsoft Windows client application that provides a guided mechanism to use SAS and publish dynamic results throughout an organization in a uniform way. It is marketed as the default interface to SAS for business analysts, statisticians, and programmers.


Enterprise Miner

A data mining tool.


Information Delivery Portal

Allows a user to setup a personalized homepage where they can view automatically generated reports, dashboards, and other SAS data structures.


Information Map Studio

A client application that helps with building information maps.


OLAP Cube Studio

A client application that helps with building OLAP Cubes.


SAS Web OLAP Viewer for Java

Web based application for viewing OLAP cubes and data explorations.


SAS Web OLAP Viewer for.NET


SAS/ACCESS

Provides the ability for SAS to transparently share data with non-native datasources.


SAS/ACCESS for PC Files

Allows SAS to transparently share data with personal computer applications including MS Access and Microsoft Office Excel.


SAS/AF

Applications facility, a set of application development tools to create customized desktop GUI applications; a robust library of drag-n-drop widgets are available; widets and models are fully object oriented; SCL programs can be attacted as needed.


SAS/SCL

SAS Component Language, allows programmers to create and compile object-oriented programs. SAS is unique in that objects may submit and execute Base/SAS and SAS/Macro statements.


SAS/ASSIST

Early point-and-click interface to SAS, has since been superseded by SAS Enterprise Guide and its client-server architecture.


SAS/C


SAS/CALC

Is a discontinued spreadsheet application, which came out in version 6 for mainframes and PCs, and didn't make it further.


SAS/CONNECT

Provides ability for SAS sessions on different platforms to communicate with each other.


SAS/DMI

A programming interface between interactive SAS and ISPF/PDF applications. Obsolete since version 5.


SAS/EIS

A menu-driven system for developing, running, and maintaining an enterprise information systems.


SAS/ETS

Provides Econometrics and Time Series Analysis


SAS/FSP

Allows interaction with data using integrated tools for data entry, computation, query, editing, validation, display, and retrieval.


SAS/GIS

An interactive desktop Geographic Information System for mapping applications.


SAS/GRAPH

Although base SAS includes primitive graphing capabilities, SAS/GRAPH is needed for charting on graphical media.


SAS/IML

Matrix-handling SAS script extensions.


SAS/INSIGHT

Dynamic tool for data mining. Allows examination of univariate distributions, visualization of multivariate data, and model fitting using regression, analysis of variance, and the generalized linear model.


SAS/Integration Technologies

Allows the SAS System to use standard protocols, like LDAP for directory access, CORBA and Microsoft's COM/DCOM for inter-application communication, as well as message-oriented middleware like Microsoft Message Queuing and IBM WebSphere MQ. Also includes the SAS' proprietary client-server protocols used by all SAS clients.


SAS/IntrNet

Extends SAS’ data retrieval and analysis functionality to the Web with a suite of CGI and Java tools


SAS/LAB

Superseded by SAS Enterprise Guide.


SAS/OR

Operations Research


SAS/PH-Clinical

Defunct product


SAS/QC

Quality Control provides quality improvement tools.


SAS/SHARE

Is a data server that allows multiple users to gain simultaneous access to SAS files


SAS/SHARE*NET

Discontinued and now part of SAS/SHARE. It allowed a SAS/SHARE data server to be accessed from non-sas clients, like JDBC or ODBC compliant applications.


SAS/SPECTRAVIEW

Allows visual exploration of large amounts of data. The data is plotted in a 3D space, and can then be visualised by creating envelope surfaces, cutting planes, etc, which can be animated depending on a fourth parameter (time for example).


SAS/STAT

Statistical Analysis with a number of procedures, providing statistical information such as analysis of variance, regression, multivariate analysis, and categorical data analysis.


SAS/TOOLKIT


SAS/Warehouse Administrator

Superseded in SAS 9 by SAS ETL Server.


SAS Web Report Studio

Part of the SAS Enterprise Business Intelligence Server, provides access to query and reporting capabilities on the Web. Aimed at non-technical users.


SAS Financial Management

Budgeting, planning, financial reporting and consolidation.


SAS Activity Based Management

Cost and revenue modeling.


SAS Strategic Performance Management

collaborative scorecards.
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Terminology


Where many other languages refer to tables, rows, and columns/fields, SAS uses the terms data sets, observations, and variables respectively. This usage derives from its statistical heritage, and is shared by SPSS, another statistical package.
There are only two kinds of variables in SAS, numeric and character (string). By default all numeric variables are stored as (8 byte) real. It is possible to reduce precision in external storage only. Date and datetime variables are numeric variables that inherit the C tradition and are stored as either the number of days (for date variables) or seconds (for datetime variables) from an epoch of 1960-01-01 00:00:00.
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
kamar_ellel
عالم مشرفنا

عالم مشرفنا


عدد المساهمات : 1009
العمر : 29
العمل/الترفيه : دراسات عليا أحصاء وعلوم الحاسب
المزاج : الحمد لله ماشى الحال
الألتزام بقوانين المنتدى :

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: SAS System   الإثنين مارس 09, 2009 3:09 pm

Features


This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

  • Read and write many different file formats.
  • Process data in many different formats.
  • SAS programming language is a 4th generation programming language. SAS DATA steps are written in a 3rd-generation procedural language very similar to PL/I; SAS PROCS, especially PROC SQL, are non-procedural and therefore better fit the definition of a 4GL.
  • SAS AF/SCL is a fifth generation programming language[citation needed] that is similar in syntax to Java.
  • WHERE filtering available in DATA steps and PROCs; based on SQL WHERE clauses, incl. operators like LIKE and BETWEEN/AND.
  • Many built-in statistical and random number functions.
  • Hundreds of built-in functions for manipulating character and numeric variables. Version 9 includes Perl Regular Expression processing.
  • SQL language adopted for statistical analysis.
  • System of formats and informats. These control representation and categorization of data and may be used within DATA step programs in a wide variety of ways. Users can create custom formats, either by direct specification or via an input dataset.
  • Comprehensive date- and time-handling functions; wide variety of formats to represent date and time information without transformation of underlying values.
  • Interaction with database products through SQL (and ability to use SQL internally to manipulate SAS data sets). Almost all SAS functions and operators available in PROC SQL.
  • SAS/ACCESS modules allow communication with databases (incl. via ODBC); in most cases, database tables can be viewed as though they were native SAS data sets. As a result, applications may combine data from many platforms without the end-user needing to know details of or distinctions between data sources.
  • Direct output of reports to CSV, HTML, PCL, PDF, PostScript, RTF, XML, and more using Output Delivery System. Templates, custom tagsets, styles incl. CSS and other markup tools available and fully programmable.
  • Interaction with the operating system (for example, pipelining on Unix and Windows and DDE on Windows).
  • Fast development time, particularly from the many built-in procedures, functions, in/formats, the macro facility, etc.
  • An integrated development environment.
  • Dynamic data-driven code generation using the SAS Macro language.
  • Can process files containing millions of rows and thousands of columns of data.
  • University research centers often offer SAS code for advanced statistical techniques, especially in fields such as Political Science, Economics and Business Administration.
  • Large user community supported by SAS Institute. Users have a say in future development, e.g., via the annual SASWare Ballot. SAS Wiki at.[5]
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Example SAS code


SAS uses data steps and procedures to analyze and manipulate data. By default, a data step iterates through each observation in a data set (like every row in a SQL table).
This data step creates a new data set BBB that includes those observations from data set AAA that had charges greater than 100.
data BBB;
set AAA(where = (charge > 100));
run;

Procedures that can summarize data are available in SAS. The proc freq procedure shows a frequency distribution of a given variable in a data set.
proc freq data=BBB;
table charge;
run;

SAS also allows direct subsetting of rows and/or columns of the data used as input to a procedure. The two previous examples could be replaced by the following:
proc freq data=AAA(where = (charge > 100));
table charge;
run;

The same program could produce a data set containing the frequency distribution:
...
table charge/out=charge_freq;
...

SAS features a macro language, which can be used to generate SAS code. For instance, the above example could be re-used in many pieces of code by rewriting it as a macro:
%macro freqtable (table, variable);
proc freq data = &table;
table &variable;
run;
%mend freqtable;

%freqtable (BBB, charge)

SAS also features SQL, which can be used to create, modify or query SAS datasets or external database tables accessed with a SAS libname engine. For example, duplicate records could be extracted from a table for analysis:
proc sql;
create table dup_recs
as select *
from your_dataset
group by id
having count(*) > 1
;
quit;

The proc print procedure allows the user to display information in ways not possible using only the SQL SELECT statement.
proc print data=BBB;
run;

SAS features SCL, which can be used to create object oriented programs. SCL programs provide a robust library of features not available in Base/SAS or SAS/Macro.
class arrays;
public num supplyChain [*,*,*,*];
eventhandler runInterface / (sender='*', event='prepack for singles and bulk');

runInterface: method;
call send(_self_, 'step1');
call send(_self_, 'step2');
* ---;
call send(_self_, 'step99');
endmethod;

step1: method / (description='initialize array: suppliers, distro-centers, stores, prepack options');
supplyChain=makearray(34000, 15, 3207, 10);
endmethod;

step2: method / (description='load data');
* code cut;
endmethod;

step99: method / (description='print results');
submit continue;
proc print data=work.results;
run;
endsubmit;
endmethod;
endclass;
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